The condition comes from degeneration of the tissues in your foot from normal wear and tear. This is just how you are affected by it.
This is the result of wear and tear. It is produced by the same forces that otherwise might wear out the hip or knee joints.
It often does. Surgery is only recommended when the pain is so severe or the symptoms have not responded appropriately to non-operative treatment already instituted.
The problem is mechanical type pain from the degenerated fascia and the associated scar formation. Until the fascia problem is treated, the pain will persist from the persisting scar.
You can but you may be very sore because of the foot dissection and it is best to stay in for some pain control. It is also possible for you to have a fair bit of bleeding and this needs to be managed before you can go home.
No. You will have a simple soft pressure dressing for a few days.
Mostly you do not. You can walk on your toes taking the pressure off your heel. If this is a bit too hard then crutches may be required.
It depends on your occupation. If your work is physical then it would be prudent to wait until the wound has healed. If you work in a non-physical job, you can go back to work after your wound has healed.
No. You will be able to do everything that someone else with a normal foot can do. This means returning to sports when you are confident enough. The idea is to return your foot to its normal function.